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what makes people poor in india

Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2022 shows lack of access to nutrition, fuel, housing and sanitation is pushing millions into poverty

India still has an absolute number of multidimensional poor of nearly 229 million, the highest in the world.Photo: Wikimedia Commons

According to the latest data, India lifted 415 million people out of multidimensional poverty between 2005-2006 and 2019-2021. Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2022 The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and research center Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHDI) announced.

The indicator, MPI 2022, takes into account three dimensions in addition to income poverty: health, education and living standards. Below these are 10 indicators by which the rating ranks the countries.

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However, India still has an absolute number of multidimensional poor of nearly 229 million, the highest in the world. Of these, 90% live in rural areas and the rest in urban areas. So what drives people to poverty in India, mostly in rural areas?

The main cause of poverty is lack of access to nutrition, housing, fuel and sanitation by MPI 2022. More than half of the multidimensional poor, or 125 million people, suffer from deprivation in his three indicators of housing, sanitation and cooking fuel packages.

For each of these indicators, India has extensive national programs to ensure its coverage and access. For example, the Swachh Bharat mission deployed over the past eight years has made India free of open defecation in her October 2019..

Similarly, the Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY), deployed six years ago, aimed to house all Indians in Pucca dwellings by 2022.

According to MPI 2022, “Cooking fuel and housing deprivation are most common among the poor, followed by nutrition and sanitation.” More than 60% of her poor experience deprivation of access to nutrition.

Nutrition as a deficiency has a high weight on the MPI. Therefore, poor performance in this regard is associated with high levels of multidimensional poverty. MPI 2022 indicates that “two-thirds of her poor live in households where at least one person is deprived of nutrition”. The report calls the situation “an alarming statistic.”

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“Nutrient deficiencies are the most significant contributors to MPI values ​​as they carry a greater weight. This is about the same as cooking fuels, housing and sanitation combined,” MPI 2022 said. It describes the main deficiencies that contribute to poverty in the country.

India’s great progress in poverty reduction has also been attributed to a sharp decline in deprivation of sanitation, cooking fuel and housing. “From 2015-16 he saw the greatest decline in sanitation, cooking fuel and housing deprivation from 2019-21,” he said MPI 2022.

This period is also a time of rapid decline in multifaceted poverty.

According to MPI 2022, “The proportion of the poor and deprived of sanitation has fallen from 24.4% in 2015/2016 to 11.3% in 2019/2021.”

Similarly, for cooking fuels, the proportion of the population that is poor and cooks mainly with wood, dung, charcoal or other solid fuels will increase by 50% from 26.0% in 2015-16 to 13.9% in 2019-21. scaled down.